Licensed under CC-BY-SA License statement/permission on Wikimedia Commons. This article incorporates text from a free content work. The Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND) is a result of a combination of two viruses, the Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus (MCMoV) and any of the cereal viruses in the Potyviridae group, like the Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV), Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV) or Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus (MDMV). Efforts in managing the maize lethal necrosis disease have contributed to reducing seed production losses, an expert has said. The disease has since been confirmed in Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, and similar symptoms have been reported in Tanzania, Uganda, South Sudan, and Ethiopia. This disease is caused by infection with 2 viruses at the same time: Maize chlorotic mottle virus, and International coalition keeps devastating maize disease at bay, but risks still linger. An international collaboration of scientists is developing germplasm screening to identify disease resistance in corn, and training programs for East African scientists to manage maize lethal necrosis in East Africa. 2012; CIMMYT, 2012). Text taken from Plantwise Factsheet for Farmers: Prevention and detection of Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease, Hiwot Lemma, Daniel W. Michael, Mhreteab Tsegay, CABI. Plantwise and partners also recommend rotating with non-cereal crops (e.g. Effects of the maize lethal necrosis disease . They also recommend not moving infected maize plants and seeds to disease-free areas. Insects spread this disease from plant to plant.Young leaves of maize begin to yellow and dry from the base to the tips and … For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use. [7], MLN resistance is an important trait to maize breeders. 2012b), was first reported in One of the most important requirements for growing corn is a high quality soil which is deep, fertile and well-draining with a pH between 6.0 and 6.8. Disease is associated with the presence of maize thrips and the growth of several crops of maize annually. Its presence has been confirmed in Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Democratic … MDMV alone can cause serious disease in maize, sweetcorn, and sorghum. Maize is the main staple food for several million families in sub-Saharan Africa. Text taken from Plantwise Factsheets for Farmers: Control vectors of Maize Lethal Necrotic Disease, Joyce G. Kessy, CABI. Ears and leaves dry up and sometimes look like a mature plant. Called maize lethal necrosis (MLN; or corn lethal necrosis, CLN), it can devastate maize crops.Infection rates and damage can be very high, seriously affecting yields and sometimes causing complete loss of the crop. The whole plant dies and maize cobs remain without kernels. for at least 2-3 years/seasons and removing alternate hosts including, sorghum, grasses, millet, wheat, oats, sudan grass. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) is a disease of maize caused by coinfection of maize with maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and one of several viruses from the Potyviridae, such as sugarcane mosaic virus, maize dwarf mosaic virus, Johnsongrass mosaic virus or wheat streak mosaic virus. Maize tassel abortion virus (MTAV) Maize vein … This disease is caused by infection with 2 viruses at the same time: Maize chlorotic mottle virus, and; MDMV (or one of its relatives). Therefore, samples were tested for the presence of Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), which is present … When maize lethal necrosis (MLN) was first reported in Bomet County, Kenya, in September 2011 and spread rapidly to several countries in eastern Africa, agricultural experts feared this emerging maize disease would severely impact regional food … One virus is maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) which, until its appearance in Kansas, was only known to occur in South America. This article incorporates text from a free content work. The double infection of the two viruses gives rise to what is known as MLND, also referred to as Corn Lethal Necrosis (CLN). In sub-Saharan Africa, maize is a staple food and key determinant of food security for smallholder farming communities. Maize is critical for food security in SSA; eastern and southern Africa use 85% of the maize produced as food, while Africa as a whole uses 95% as food (Shiferaw et al. [9] Forward genetics is increasingly being used.[9]. Corn lethal necrosis develops when two viruses occur together in the same plant. The disease is difficult to control for two reasons: It is caused by a combination of two viruses that are difficult to differentiate individually based on visual symptoms. In potato, co-infection by Potato virus X and Potato virus Y causes synergism. The Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN) disease is threatening food security for the majority of households in ECA. [6][7][8], The Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Ethiopia recommend uprooting and burning of diseased plants. As the disease advances, the maize leaves become yellow and dry out from the outside edges towards the midrib. Maize lethal necrosis, a disease caused by a set of viruses, results in up to 100 per cent yield losses, thus having a devastating impact on food security and smallholders’ incomes in Sub-Saharan Africa, according to the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). SUMMARY: Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) is a new viral disease for Africa. Text taken from PMDG: Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND) (Ethiopia), Kassahun Sedessa (EIAR), Mebrahtom G/kidan (TBoARD), Habtie Abate (S/Gondar Agri Dept, Amhara), CABI. Dead plants can then be seen scattered across the field among healthy looking plants. Maize sterile stunt virus (strains of barley yellow striate virus ) Maize streak. Unlike maize streak virus disease though, the streaks of MLND are wider. [4], Leaves of infected plants become yellow from the tip and margins to the centre. Finally, the entire plant dries out and dies. The disease is caused by a combination of two viruses, Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), a pathogen prevalent in many parts of Kenya affecting cereal crops. 1 Introduction This popular booklet, already in its fourth edition, is designed as a quick guide for identifying maize diseases. Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLN disease, MLND, corn lethal necrosis) is a viral disease affecting maize (corn) predominantly in East Africa, Southeast Asia and South America, which was recognised in 2010. [1][2], Spread of the disease is driven by expansion in the range of maize chlorotic mottle virus, which is thought to be transmitted by species of thrips including maize thrips (Frankliniella williamsi) and possibly western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. Based on previous editions produced by CIMMYT maize beans, faba bean, chickpea etc.) In September 2011, a serious disease outbreak, later diagnosed as maize lethal necrosis (MLN), was reported on maize in Kenya. The main thrust of the current management strategy is to prevent the introduction of the disease through sound surveillance and early destruction of … Maize lethal necrosis, a disease caused by a set of viruses, results in up to 100 per cent yield losses, thus having a devastating impact on food security and smallholders’ incomes in Sub-Saharan Africa, according to the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). Called maize lethal necrosis (MLN; or corn lethal necrosis, CLN), it can devastate maize crops. MLN is a disease caused by combined infection of maize plants with maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV; genus Machlomovirus, family Tombusviridae) (Niblett and Claflin, 1978), with any one of several viruses from the family Potyviridae, such as sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) or … Viruses involved in maize lethal necrosis disease. In Kenya, a serious disease outbreak, later diagnosed as maize lethal necrosis (MLN) (Wangai et al. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. [3] In early March 2015, the middle of the rainy season, losses were estimated at 10%. Maize chlorotic mottle virus is not present in … It is caused by simultaneous infection with two viruses, maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMoV) of the Tombusviridae family and a virus from the Potyviridae group: maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV) or others. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) is a disease of maize caused by the combination of Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and a virus belonging to the potyviridae family. Infected plants die prematurely. Symptoms similar to MLN were reported in Uganda, Tanzania, South Sudan and Ethiopia. Maize lethal necrosis disease is caused by maize chlorotic mottle virus and sugarcane mosaic virus attacking the plant at the same time. The disease is difficult to control for two reasons: firstly, it is caused by a combination of viruses; secondly, it can be spread through seed and by insect vectors that may be carried by wind over long distances. MDMV alone can cause serious disease in maize, sweetcorn, and sorghum. License statement/permission on Wikimedia Commons, "Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND) - A snapshot", "Kenyan Corn-Disease Outbreak May Cut Output by 30% This Year", "Kenya: Disease Hits Kenya Maize Expectations", "Plantwise Knowledge Bank | Control vectors of Maize Lethal Necrotic Disease", "Plantwise Knowledge Bank | Prevention and detection of Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease", "Plantwise Knowledge Bank | Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND)", "Plantwise Knowledge Bank | Maize lethal necrosis disease in maize", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Maize_lethal_necrosis_disease&oldid=989924511, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 21 November 2020, at 20:02. [5], In the early stages, MLND causes long yellow stripes on leaves. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) causes a variety of symptoms in maize depending upon genotype, age of infection and environmental conditions. (Photo: George Mahuku/CIMMYT) This announcement by Dr. L. M. Suresh was originally published on the Maize Lethal Necrosi s Information Portal of the International Maize and … declining acreage under maize cultivation and demands of fast growing population (Nuss and Tanumihardjo, 2010). Maize lethal necrosis was first identified in the USA in 1976 ( Niblett and Caflin, 1978 ). Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) is a new, devastating disease in East Africa that leads to severe production losses and, in many cases, complete crop failure. The double … Licensed under CC-BY-SA License statement/permission on Wikimedia Commons. This virus ordinarily produces mild symptoms when present alone in corn; however, when a key second virus … MLND can also cause dwarfing and premature aging of the plants. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use. Licensed under CC-BY-SA License statement/permission on Wikimedia Commons. This article incorporates text from a free content work. [6], Partners of the CABI-led programme, Plantwise recommend where possible using certified, disease-free seed. However, with high incidences of fungal contamination in MLND infected maize observed in maize … To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. High yield losses in maize due to MLN ranging from 50 to 90% have been reported and can reach 100% where the disease pressure is high. Maize streak virus (MSV) Maize stripe (maize chlorotic stripe, maize hoja blanca) Maize stripe virus. MLND symptoms can be confused with symptoms of nutrient deficiency but plants affected by MLND appear only in some areas and are scattered or clumped in a field while nutrient deficiency appears on many plants over large areas of a field. Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease is a serious disease of maize caused by viruses.This disease attacks maize at all stages of growth and causes total maize loss. The maize lethal necrosis (MLN) screening facility at the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) Naivasha in Kenya. Licensed under CC-BY-SA License statement/permission on Wikimedia Commons. It is also recommended to plough and expose soil to sunlight for at least 2 months. Maize is the staple food crop for subsistence farmers in East Africa. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use. Maize lethal necrosis is a re-emerging disease that has reached epidemic proportion and is threatening food security in sub-Saharan Africa. The most commons are the potyvirus Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV), Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus () or the tritimovirus Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV). However, the observed symptoms were more severe than commonly associated with MCMV, suggesting the presence of maize lethal necrosis (MLN), a disease that results from maize infection with both MCMV and a potyvirus (4). Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLN disease, MLND, corn lethal necrosis) is a viral disease affecting maize (corn) predominantly in East Africa, Southeast Asia and South America, which was recognised in 2010. Since then the disease has been reported in Rwanda and DR . An alarming threat to food security … It has caused great concern because plants are killed and little or no grain is produced. 2011). [2], In late 2014, it was reported that MLND could cut Kenya's maize production by as much as 30%. The maize lethal necrosis (MLN) disease, which appeared in the region in 2011, has caused major losses to maize crops, decreasing food security and the ability of the smallholder farmers to provide for their families. [7], Another method of prevention is to leave land fallow for 2 months especially where maize is produced using irrigation. Corn plants are very heavy feeders and even the most fertile of soils may need to supplemented with nutrients as the plants develop, particularly nit… SFERA - Special Fund for Emergency and Rehabilitation, Emergency Management Centre for Animal Health. Text taken from PMDG: Maize lethal necrosis disease in maize (Zambia), Mathews Matimelo (ZARI), CABI. The disease prevents the plants from growing tall, causes yellowing and death of the leaves, and stops the ears from growing and setting seeds. Pest and disease outbreaks are key constraints to maize productivity. Abstract Maize lethal necrosis (MLN), a complex viral disease, emerged as a serious threat to maize production and the livelihoods of smallholders in eastern Africa since 2011, primarily due to the introduction of maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV). Older leaves (bottom of plant) remain green. But it is also one of the viruses that cause maize lethal necrosis disease. Maize tassel abortion. In September 2011, a serious disease outbreak, later diagnosed as maize lethal necrosis (MLN), was reported on maize in Kenya. The disease has a serious effect and causes much damage if the maize becomes infected early in the growing season and availability of water is low and high temperatures occur. But it is also one of the viruses that cause maize lethal necrosis disease. This article incorporates text from a free content work. Researchers have established a link between declining maize yields and MLN (Wangai et al. The Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND) is a result of a combination of two viruses, the Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus (MCMoV) and any of the cereal viruses in the Potyviridae group, like the Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV), Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV) or Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus (MDMV). For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. MAIZE LETHAL NECROSIS HISTORY In September 2011, a disease outbreak in Kenya was positively identified as Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND). It is caused by simultaneous infection with two viruses, maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMoV) of the Tombusviridae family and a virus from the Potyviridae group: maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), wheat streak mo… A serious new disease of maize appeared in the farmers' fields in eastern Africa in 2011. Situation. Basic requirements Corn is best grown in warm, tropical and sub-tropical regions as it requires warm soils to develop optimally. 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